Bowl is a round vessel with a deep base. It can be of any size and the wall can curve inwards, outwards or be straight. It is one of the most popular and important pieces of pottery, made for decorative and practical purposes.
The clay has been centered and opened by coordinating the rotation of the wheel with the movement of the hands, the left hand inside the bowl and the right outside and using them simultaneously to form the wall of a bowl. This movement is repeated until you have the thickness and shape you require. To finish the bowl, sponge the inside while supporting it on the outside with your left hand, then turn it upside down on the wheel so the footing can be finished.
a) Turn the wheel, with the fingers of the left hand on the center of the cone and the right hand on top, pressure downwards to start opening.
b) With your thumbs in the center and your fingers on the outside enlarge the opening.
c) Turn the wheel in relation to the movement of your hands and open the bowl outwards.
d) You turn the wheel with your left hand on the center and you support the outside with your right hand.
e) The position to have your hands in while thinning the clay, the left inside and the right outside with the fingers together supporting the clay.
f) This shows an alternative way to stretch out the clay; the position of the fingers helps to control a larger quantity of clay.
g) The position of the hands makes the thickness of the clay the same all the way round the wall.
h) The position of the hands when pushing the edges outwards to form the shape.
i) To correct or change the inclination of the bowl.
j) Move your hands round to make it circular.
k) Using a tool force the base inwards to accentuate the angle.
l) The bowl has been cut in half to show the angles of the wall and the form of the foot.
Many products made on a wheel, depending on their size and shape, can become deformed when being cut to take them off the wheel as the clay is still too soft. If there is any danger of this happening it is better to work on a Wheel Bat, which works as a tray so the piece can be moved and left to become leather hard, which means dry enough to be separated without being damaged so it can be turned and the footing cleaned. As the clay dries it shrinks and this can separate it from the wheel. If not, it has to be sliced off with a cutting wire, which is pulled between the wheel and the bottom of the bowl.
Note: The different sections in throwing; centering, handle, foot, knob etc., are all explained separately under their name but in the special section “Throwing” they are all explained together.
Read more about: Pot lift. it is a very good instrument for moving work; such as bowls.
All the photos in this section have been lent to me from Revistaceramica.
Brown is a color that has been used a great deal in ceramics. It is an earth color and has many different variations when mixed with other colors. We think of it as dark, but it has a range going from a light cream to nearly black.
The following five are ones we use in the Majolica method.
1. Brown – manganese is dark-brown usually mixed with a little red and blue. This tends to give it a purple-brown shade and increases its strength. It is used for outlines and shading with the Majolica method. It is a temperamental color that you have to be careful with, as it burns away. When painting outlines make sure it is strong and be careful as it often blisters.
2. Brown-red came into Spanish ceramics from England during the eighteenth century. It is a reddish brown and warm color, good for shading and outlines.
3. Brown – dirty
is a mixture of manganese and ochre. This is called dirty brown, because when in liquid form it has a dirty, muddy color, but when fired, becomes a dark, warm brown. It is not strong and must be applied quite liberally.
4. Brown mixed is 50% brown strong and 50% brown red and used instead of manganese for outlines and shading.
is a very dark color, used a lot for shading, over or under another color. When used for shading, it must be well diluted with water and applied thinly.
PINZELLS – Decoració
PINCELES - Decoración
The next photo shows four brushes which are named by the shape of the hair.
a) Flat brush; b) Sumie; c) Fan brush; d) Pointed brush. Paint Brushes.
Over the centuries brushes have evolved into many different shapes, made up of different types of hair to produce different brush strokes, to leave different textures and to paint using different techniques and products. The best is squirrel hair, which is made up in many different shapes and sizes. It is expensive but there is also a large selection of good and more economical brushes to choose from. The hair should not be too long and be able to retain paint, to allow for long, strong, smooth lines, suitable for general decoration. A brush should be soft enough to relate to the movements and intensities you are imposing on it to create lines and curves.
The following gives a list of the names of the different types of hair and fibers and the names of the styles of decorating with which they are used. The photos only show one but many are available in different sizes. Brushes for decorating ceramics are made with many different types of hair and fibers.
a) Mexican White Fiber is a cream-colored hair which is strong and used for slip and making textures.
b) Goat Hair is usually of good quality, held in a quill and wire bound. The hair forms a large, soft body so it can hold large quantities of decorating media. Leaves no brush marks and is used for painting on slips and glazes.
c) Mexican Black Fiber is a strong, black hair.
d) Hog Hair is a strong, cream hair, used for slip and lawn brushes.
e) Ox Hair is strong, brown and resilient. The brushes are wide with sharp corners. They are used for painting over large flat spaces or fine lines using the corner edge of the brush.
f) Pony Hair brushes are usually made in Japan; the hair is strong and wide.
g) Sable Hair. There is a large range of these brushes; they all end in a fine point. The small sizes are good for drawing and detailed work; the larger ones for general decoration of glaze and slips and are useful for on-glaze decoration.
h) Sheep’s Hair brushes usually come from China. They make an excellent pottery brush of long, soft white hair.
Left: Chinese, with sheep’s hair and made with bamboo handles. They are separate brushes of the same size but joined together to make up one brush.
Right: Chinese sheep’s hair brush, bamboo handle and ox horn ferrule.
i) Squirrel Hair brushes are made in many different shapes and sizes. They give a strong, smooth line, suitable for general decoration in both the under-glaze and on-glaze method. A brush with long hair and thin point can retain a large amount of paint, which allows for long unbroken strokes and lines.
PINZELLS – Aprofitables
PINCELES - Aprovechables
a) Brush – to clean bisque. Before starting to decorate, you must clean the dust off the bisque. You need a brush that is not too hard or too soft. The most popular ones are wide, short handled and with soft washable hair, used for painting furniture. They are used to clean the dust off all bisque objects before starting to decorate.
b) Brush – to clean glaze-base. Very soft, large brushes, made in China. They are cheap, washable and do not lose hair. When ware has been prepared with a slip or glaze-base and needs to be cleaned of dust or dirt these brushes are excellent as they are so soft and do not scratch or damage the unfired surface.
c) Brush – to clean small parts. This is an old toothbrush with its hair cut down, it is strong and good for cleaning the glaze off the foot of plates and jars.
d & e) Brushes – to clean glaze-base off tiles. This is the type of brush used for scrubbing floors, it should be purchased with natural bristle and wooden body. There are two types (d) is the strongest and (e) has bristles that are thinner and softer. When tiles have been prepared with a glaze-base they are used to clean off the base from their backs and sides. To start use a strong brush, the more you use them, the more they wear out and the better they work. The most worn-out ones are good to clean the backs of tiles, on which there is a lot of glaze-base. To make more work all industrial tiles are made with a protruding design on the back and the more intricate the design the harder it is to clean. Read more about: Glaze-Base (f) Cleaning it off tiles
f) Brush made of palm leaves. This brush has the form shown in the two photos. They are made out of leaves of palm trees and made in different sizes. If the brush is new, soak it in water, the older and more used, the better. Knock it about a bit to give it an uneven texture. It can be used for dusting the bisque and is very good for making uneven textures with glaze and colors.Read more about: Glaze-Base (m) Textures
g) Brush – to paint outlines in the Majolica method. You need two or three brushes, about size 10, cut down to a different thickness to form a narrow, flat end. The thick part holds the paint so it runs down through the thin part and allows long unbroken strokes. The drawing shows a brush before and after cutting, these are for painting outlines.